Every night our bodies come in close contact with this essential material, yet rarely have a lot of people ever heard of it: MATTRESS TICKING. The purpose of this information is to provide advice about the rich background and the evolution of this important home textile that serves as the outer covering of each and every mattress made. There are lots of books on the history of textiles-but rarely does an index mentions ticking.
Having been a business purchasing manager of mattress ticking-I later became frustrated on my quest to discover the genesis of the term and also the technical description. I contacted a professor of air duct material I knew at Southern Polytechnic Institute in Marietta, Georgia; he didn’t know but gave me the names of two retired textile history professors from Clemson. Both men told me they failed to understand what original tickings were-and had never been asked! So, I’m sharing about two decades of my own, personal research-which may prove a bit technical but which is my purpose.
Specialty textiles, including mattress ticking, were first engineered in Medieval Italy (1100-1400) and followed various guild prescriptions which covered the locations, loom types and combination of materials. Mattress ticking were a strict weave fustian which had a linen warp as well as a cotton weft. These blended yarn products were called Union Weaves later in Europe. Simple monochrome stripes of plain or tabby weaves were produced along with four heddle twills, checks, herringbones in heavier muslins and buckrams.
Terlici were triple-twilled fabrics created using a combination of linen and hemp warp and cotton weft and were heavyweight sturdy mattress ticking. Plain, striped, and checked burdie were linen warp and cotton weft tickings. Milan offered an acordati which were single, double or triple ribbed cords mixing linen and cotton warp yarns in mixtures of twelve linen to 3 cotton or eight linen to generate a heavy grade cloth. Milan also produced banerie that had been heavy 100% cotton cloths in which the steleta were graded as mattress ticking.1
Ticks/Ticking talking about the oxford fabric as a mattress of bolster casing enters English in Fabyan’s Chnonicles 1305-other sources more common in 1365. Various cotton cloths including ticking and also the word cotton (from Arabic “qutun”) was imported into England in about 1507 because duties were quickly applied because the country tried to protect the domestic wool textile industry.3 “Cotton-wool” as it was described, continued to develop popular in spite of British regulations to halt it. The 1660 Tonnage and Poundage Act applied 7-1/2 percent ad valorem duty on linens (including tickings) and further duties followed to ensure that by 1714, an example case of 500 ells of striped broad German linen valued at 400 pounds Sterling had an additional duty of 203 pounds.4
The initial utilization of cotton in Lancashire, England appears to happen to be used by fustian weavers in 1601 (fustians were linen and cotton mixed blends)-this cloth possibly being “domestic” ticking grade. As has become explained, Italian guild specialty formulas abounded. Through migration as a result of religious reasons, several weavers left Italy to settle in Germany inside the cities of Ulm and Augsburg-this new German cloth with linen warp and cotton weft called barchent. Prior to the end of the 16th century these textile producers were in Nurnburg, Hof, Zwickau, Leipzig, and Chemintz and Germany advanced before all European countries in cotton manufacture.
In 1561, England allowed a mass migration of 406 persons from Flanders Nevertheless the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, that cotton product had all but ceased. However, during the period of decades, many textile craftsmen proficient in cotton had settled in England and also by mid-1700s thousands of home shops were producing goods including ticking and raw cotton imports had jxtjsh from 1,545,472 million pounds in 1730 to 3,870,392 pounds in 1764. After Richard Arkwright kicked from the Industrial Revolution together with his Spinning Jenny and Water-frame, the volume of cotton imports in 1780 was 32 million pounds.6
British trade cards mention ticking being a product available for sale. In 1750, William Witton of Southwark mentions Flanders & English Ticking on the market; Nathaniel Hewitt of Southwark also mentions Flanders & English Ticking for sale in 1768. Between 1770-1820 Arkwright’s innovation developed a textile giant in Manchester, England. By 1813, Boston Manufacturing Company became the largest textile producer in the United States. Amoskeag Mills was developed in Manchester, New Hampshire on the Merrimack River and through mid-1850 the mighty factory had 24,000 looms and 662, 000 spindles in a complex of over 5 million sq . ft .. Amoskeag Mills, which held the title from the World’s Largest Textile Mill up to 1910, introduced what is one of the world’s most favored mattress ticking: the ACA Stripe. This oxford mattress cover was based off ancient Italian form of a thin and thick alternative stripe of black or dark blue color- but was manufactured with 100% cotton. ACA was by far the most desired for quality bedding and mattresses.